[1].葡萄牙直接防控松材线虫的措施[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2011,35(02):146-146.[doi:10.3969/j.jssn.1000-2006.2011.02.032]
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葡萄牙直接防控松材线虫的措施
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《南京林业大学学报(自然科学版)》[ISSN:1000-2006/CN:32-1161/S]

卷:
35
期数:
2011年02期
页码:
146-146
栏目:
国际学术会议论文摘要选登
出版日期:
2011-03-28

文章信息/Info

Title:
The direct control measures against the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in portuguese case
关键词:
松萎蔫病松材线虫欧盟阿维菌素美贝霉素
分类号:
S763
DOI:
10.3969/j.jssn.1000-2006.2011.02.032
文献标志码:
D
摘要:
由松材线虫引发的松萎蔫病在葡萄牙发生于1999年,此后防治该病的措施主要是热处理、用溴甲烷熏蒸、砍伐和焚烧感病树木。最近发布了一系列的官方文件,以确保这些措施对松木、包装木和其他松木材料的处理效果,且已经有公司注册按照文件要求进行处理。最近欧盟对这些防治措施和药剂进行评价,主要考查它们对人类健康和环境的影响,所得结果是原来市场上流通的1 219 种药剂产品中仅有340种获得批准在欧盟市场上流通。其中溴甲烷被标记为“高度危险”,仅能用于检疫和运输前对木材或木制品的处理;硫酰氟被标记为“暂时未定”,可以暂时替代溴甲烷;阿维菌素、甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸和美贝霉素被认为是有效防治松材线虫病的药物,允许用于树干注射;阿维菌素和美贝霉素已经被批准使用,而甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸则被标记为“暂时未定”,可以限时使用。
Abstract:
Instituto Superior de Agronomia SAPI Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal)Pine wilt disease, caused by the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, was first reported in Portugal in 1999. Since its detection in Portugal the direct control against pine wood nematode has been done mainly by heat treatment (HT), fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) as well as removing and burning the affected trees. Recently, a new official publication referring to the Heat Treatment Control Measures defined the requirements in order to certify the control against B. xylophilus in softwood sawn timber, pallets and other packages.The same publication also refers the requirements to affixing the efficacy of treatment by the traders. At the moment there are 233 registered companies for the HT use. Fumigations are made with MB and there are four companies registered to do it. Following the ratification of the Montreal Protocol by the Portuguese Government, in 17/10/1988, and the EU reevaluation of the active substances the MB can only be used until 19/9/2010. With the adoption of the Directive 91/414/EEC, the European Commission launched the work programme of wide review for all substances used in plant protection products within the EU. This review process aims to evaluate each substance considering their safety use with respect to: (1) human health (consumers, farmers, local residents and passersby). (2) the environment (in particular groundwater and nontarget organisms, such as birds, mammals, earthworms, bees) and concerning: a) all the substances currently on the market in 15 July 1991 (when this Directive was adopted); b) the new substances proposed to admission by the industry, from July 1993 onwards. As result of this process, from the 1 219 active ingredients in the E U market only 340 have been approved (included in the Annex 1 of Directive 91/414/EEC), 61 are still pending and 797 were removed from the market because their use was not safe for human health and the environment. At the moment, there is any nematicide authorized in Portugal against B. xylophylus, except the MB particular case. MB is classified as a “high risk” active substance and can only be used in quarantine and preshipment situations. Sulfuryl fluoride, which is already in the EU market and with its status under Directive 91/414/EEC “pending”, could be a technical alternative to MB. Abamectin, emamectin benzoate and milbemectin, referred as effective in B. xylophylus control are three possible options to considered as trunkinjection treatments. Abamectin and milbemectin have already been reevaluated and “included” in the Annex 1 while emamectin benzoate status under the same Directive is “pending”.

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更新日期/Last Update: 2011-04-13