[1]耿树香,宁德鲁*,李勇杰,等.云南省主栽核桃与美国山核桃品种营养成分分析[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2017,41(06):193-198.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201602020]
 GENG Shuxiang,NING Delu*,LI Yongjie,et al.A comparative study on quality characteristics of main walnut and pecan varieties in Yunnan Province[J].Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Science Edition),2017,41(06):193-198.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201602020]
点击复制

云南省主栽核桃与美国山核桃品种营养成分分析
分享到:

《南京林业大学学报(自然科学版)》[ISSN:1000-2006/CN:32-1161/S]

卷:
41
期数:
2017年06期
页码:
193-198
栏目:
研究简报
出版日期:
2017-11-30

文章信息/Info

Title:
A comparative study on quality characteristics of main walnut and pecan varieties in Yunnan Province
文章编号:
1000-2006(2017)06-0193-06
作者:
耿树香宁德鲁*李勇杰陈海云肖良俊
云南省林业科学院,云南省木本油料工程技术研究中心,云南 昆明 650201
Author(s):
GENG ShuxiangNING Delu* LI Yongjie CHEN Haiyun XIAO Liangjun
Yunnan Academy of Forestry, Woody Oil Engineering Technology Research Center of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650201, China
关键词:
核桃 美国山核桃 品种 粗脂肪 蛋白质 微量元素 脂肪酸 云南
Keywords:
Keywords:walnuts pecan varieties crude fat protein trace element fatty acid Yunnan Province
分类号:
S664.1
DOI:
10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201602020
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
【目的】探究云南主栽核桃与美国山核桃不同品种之间的品质差异,为核桃深加工奠定理论基础。【方法】 选择40个有代表性的云南核桃与美国山核桃品种进行核仁的16种营养成分的分析与评价,采用索氏提取仪、凯氏定氮仪、气-质联用仪及原子吸收光谱仪对所采核桃样品进行分析。【结果】基于16种营养成分的品种相似性分析,将40个品种分为4组。在粗脂肪含量方面,云南主栽核桃与美国山核桃粗脂肪质量分数在52.11%~71.77%之间,最高为38号美国山核桃中的‘密西西比10号'; Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组具有较大优势; 在蛋白质含量方面,质量分数在4.66%~15.9%之间,其中最高为40号‘大麻二号',Ⅱ组和Ⅲ组具有较大优势; 在微量元素方面,锌的含量在0.004 8~0.109 0 mg/g之间; 铁含量在0.009 8~0.192 8 mg/g之间; 钙含量在0.254 8~0.651 7 mg/g之间。Ⅰ组在Zn和Fe指标上占较大优势,而Ⅱ组在Ca指标上占有较大优势; 脂肪酸含量方面,Ⅰ组在豆蔻酸、油酸、花生酸指标上占优势,Ⅱ组在月桂酸、棕榈-烯酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸及花生-烯酸指标上占优势,Ⅲ组在棕榈酸、硬脂酸指标上占优势,Ⅳ组在山嵛酸指标上占优势。【结论】核桃油是一种较为理想的食用油,蛋白含量较高而含油率较低品种在生产加工中可考虑蛋白饮料及蛋白肽的加工方法,‘大理漾泡'‘金华'‘密西西比10号'3个品种可充分利用其中的微量元素,开发具营养保健功能的富Fe、富Zn、富Ca核桃蛋白露或蛋白粉。
Abstract:
【Objective】 The purpose of the present study was to compare the quality of walnut and pecan varieties cultured in Yunnan and to establish a theoretical foundation for the deep processing of walnuts and pecans in Yunnan. 【Method】The main nutritional components of kernels from 40 representative varieties(divided into four groups based on the similarity analysis)were evaluated using a Soxhlet extraction apparatus, Kjeldahl apparatus, GC-MS and atomic absorption spectrometer. 【Reult】The crude fat content(mass fraction)of walnut and pecan varieties ranged from 52.11% to 71.77%, with the highest level observed in ‘Mississippi No. 10' in pecan variety No. 38. The varieties in Group Ⅰ and Group Ⅱ had greater advantages. Meanwhile, the Zn, Fe and Ca contents(mass fraction)ranged from 0.004 8 to 0.109 0 mg/g, from 0.009 8 to 0.192 8 mg/g, and from 0.254 8 to 0.651 7 mg/g, respectively. The kernels of the Group I varieties were rich in Zn and Fe, whereas those of the Group Ⅱ varieties were rich in Ca. The kernels of the Group Ⅰ varieties were also superior in regards to myristic, oleic and arachidic acid levels, whereas those of the Group Ⅱ varieties were superior in regards to lauric, palm, linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid levels; those of Group Ⅲ varieties were superior in regards to palm and stearic acid levels; and those of the Group Ⅳ varieties were superior in regards to behenic acid level. 【Conclusion】 Walnut and pecan are ideal source of edible oil. Varieties that have higher protein contents and lower oil contents can be used as protein beverages and peptides. The walnut varieties ‘Dali yangpao', ‘Jinhua' and pecan variety ‘Mississippi No. 10' are valuable sources of trace elements and can be used to develop Fe-, Zn-, and Ca-rich walnut protein or protein powders with nutrition and health functions.

参考文献/References:

[1] SABATÉ J, FRASER G E, BURKE K, et al. Effects of walnuts on serum lipid levels and blood pressure in normal men[J]. New England Journal of Medicine, 1993, 328(9): 603-607. DOI:10.1056/NEJM199303043280902. 328:603-607.
[2] HU F B, STAMPFER M J, MANSON J E, et al. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study[J]. British Medical Journal, 1998, 317(7169): 1341-1345. DOI:10.1136/bmj.317.7169.1341.
[3] ALMARIO R U, VONGHAVARAVAT V, WONG R, et al. Effects of walnut consumption on plasma fattyacids and lipoproteins in combined hyperlipidemia[J]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2001, 74(1): 72-79.
[4] 张琦, 程滨, 赵瑞芬,等. 不同品种核桃外观品质和矿质养分含量的比较研究[J]. 中国农学通报, 2011, 27(4):301-305. ZHANG Q, CHENG B, ZHAO R F, et al. Comparative research on nut qualities and mineral nutrient content in different walnut cultivars[J]. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 2011, 27(4):301-305.
[5] 王燕军, 李留振, 魏洪敏, 等. 11个早实核桃品种河南禹州的表现初报[J]. 中国果树, 2007(2):22-23. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-8047.2007.02.010.
[6] 张美勇, 徐颖, 刘嘉芬, 等. 核桃不同品种果实坚果品质分析[J]. 中国农学通报, 2008, 24(12): 313-316. ZHANG M Y, XU Y, LIU J F, et al. Analyses the nut qualities of different walnut cultivars[J]. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 2008, 24(12): 313-316.
[7] 虎海防,郑伟华,张强,等. 新疆6个核桃品种种仁主要营养成分比较分析[J]. 新疆农业科学,2010,47(6):1122-1125. HU H F, ZHENG W H, ZHANG Q, et al. Comparative analysis on main nutrient components in the kernel of six walnut varieties in Xinjiang[J]. Xinjiang Agricultural Sciences, 2010, 47(6):1122-1125.
[8] 杨俊霞, 郭宝林, 张卫红, 等. 核桃主要经济性状的主成分分析及优良品种选择的研究[J]. 河北农业大学学报, 2001, 24(4):39-42. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-1573.2001.04.012. YANG J X, GUO B L, ZHANG W H, et al.The studies of principal component analysis on the main economic character and superior variety selection of walnut[J]. Journal of Agricultural University of Hebei, 2001, 24(4):39-42.
[9] 赵登超, 王钧毅, 韩传明, 等. 不同品种核桃仁脂肪含量及脂肪酸组成成分分析[J]. 华北农学报, 2009, 24(S): 295-298. ZHAO D C, WANG J Y, HAN C M, et al. Analysis of fat and fatty acids composition and content in walnut varieties[J]. North China Agricultural Journal, 2009, 24(S): 295-298.
[10] 刘力, 龚宁, 夏国华, 等. 山核桃种仁蛋白质及氨基酸成分含量的变异分析[J]. 林业科学研究,2006, 19(3): 376-378.DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:1001-1498.2006.03.021. LIU L, GONG N, XIA G H, et al. Analysis on the protein and amino acids contents in hickory(Carya cathayensis Sarg.)kernel and their variations[J]. Forestry Scientific Research, 2006, 19(3): 376-378.
[11] 李国和, 杨冬生, 胡庭兴. 四川省不同产地核桃脂肪酸含量的变化[J]. 林业科学,2007, 43(5): 36-41. DOI: 10.11707/j.issn:1001-7488.2007.0506. LI G H, YANG D S, HU T X.Changes in fatty acid content of walnut in different production areas of Sichuan Province[J]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2007, 43(5): 36-41.
[12] 王晓燕, 张志华, 李月秋, 等. 核桃品种中脂肪酸的组成与含量分析[J]. 营养学报,2004, 26(6): 499-501.DOI:10.3321/j.issn:0512-7955.2004.06.023. WANG X Y, ZHANG Z H, LI Y Q. Analysis of fatty acids composition and content in walnut varieties[J]. Acta Nutrimenta Sinica, 2004, 26(6): 499-501.
[13] 朱冬, 王磊, 李超, 等. 核桃微量元素含量的测定[J]. 安徽农业科学, 2012,40(16): 8947-8949. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.0517-6611.2012.16.061. ZHU D, WANG L, LI C, et al.Determinatlon of trace elements in walnut[J]. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences,2012,40(16): 8947-8949.
[14] 刘立行. 火焰原子吸收光谱法测定山核桃种微量元素含量[J]. 分析仪器,2008, 21(2):20-21. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1001-232X.2008.02.007. LIU L X. Determination of trace elements in hickory nut by flame atomic absorption spectrometry[J]. Analytical Instrumentation,2008, 21(2):20-21.
[15] 孙春香, 李巧云. 微波消解-火焰原子吸收光谱法测定黄花菜、薇菜和核桃仁种的铜、锌、铁、锰[J]. 常熟理工学院学报(自然科学版),2007, 21(2): 53-56.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1008-2794.2007.02.012. SUN C X, LI Q Y. Determination of copper,zinc,iron,and manganese in day-lily flower Osmunda cinnamomea,and walnut kernel by microwave digestion-flame atomic absorption spectrometry[J]. Journal of Changshu Institute of Technology, 2007, 21(2): 53-56.
[16] 孙远明,余群力.食品营养学[M].北京:中国农业大学出版社,2000.

相似文献/References:

[1]周应书,王敏,刘崇欣.核桃优良性状选择的Fuzzy分级评价研究[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2009,33(04):029.[doi:10.3969/j.jssn.1000-2006.2009.04.006]
 ZHOU Ying shu,WANG Min,LIU Chong xin.Study on Fuzzy classification assessment of excellent characters selection for walnut[J].Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Science Edition),2009,33(06):029.[doi:10.3969/j.jssn.1000-2006.2009.04.006]
[2]王滑,阎亚波,张俊佩,等.应用ITS序列及SSR标记分析核桃与铁核桃亲缘关系[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2009,33(06):035.[doi:10.3969/j.jssn.1000-2006.2009.06.008]
 WANG Hua,YAN Ya bo,ZHANG Jun pei,et al.Application of ITS sequence and SSR markers to study the relationship between Juglans regia and Juglans sigillata[J].Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Science Edition),2009,33(06):035.[doi:10.3969/j.jssn.1000-2006.2009.06.008]

备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
基金项目:云南省林业厅木本油料创新项目(20140CX06; [2014]CX01) 第一作者:耿树香(gsx05@126.com),副研究员。*通信作者:宁德鲁(ningdelu@163.com),研究员。
更新日期/Last Update: 1900-01-01