[1]万 盼,黄小辉,熊兴政,等.农药施用浓度对油桐幼苗生长及土壤酶活性、有效养分含量的影响[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2018,42(01):073-80.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201705022 ]
 WAN Pan,HUANG Xiaohui,XIONG Xingzheng,et al.Effects of pesticides on soil enzyme activities,available nutrients and growth of Vernicia fordii seedlings[J].Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Science Edition),2018,42(01):073-80.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201705022 ]
点击复制

农药施用浓度对油桐幼苗生长及土壤酶活性、有效养分含量的影响
分享到:

《南京林业大学学报(自然科学版)》[ISSN:1000-2006/CN:32-1161/S]

卷:
42
期数:
2018年01期
页码:
073-80
栏目:
研究论文
出版日期:
2018-01-31

文章信息/Info

Title:
Effects of pesticides on soil enzyme activities,available nutrients and growth of Vernicia fordii seedlings
文章编号:
1000-2006(2018)01-0073-08
作者:
万 盼12黄小辉1熊兴政1刘 芸1*
1.西南大学资源环境学院林学系,重庆 4000716; 2. 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所, 国家林业局林木培育重点实验室,北京 100091
Author(s):
WAN Pan12 HUANG Xiaohui1 XIONG Xingzheng1 LIU Yun1*
1. Department of Forestry, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University,Chongqiong 400716, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation of State Forestry Administration, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
关键词:
百草枯 氰戊·乐果 土壤酶活性 有效养分含量 油桐苗 三峡库区
Keywords:
Keywords:paraquat fenvalerate-dimerthoate soil enzyme activity effective nutrient content Vernicia fordii(Hemsl.) Three Gorges Reservoir Region
分类号:
S714.2
DOI:
10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201705022
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
【目的】通过研究施用不同浓度百草枯和氰戊·乐果对油桐幼苗土壤酶活性和养分含量的影响,为在三峡库区实施油桐科学种植、减少库区面源污染提供参考。【方法】以盆栽油桐幼苗为材料,对其土壤喷施不同浓度百草枯(原药与水体积比为1/50、1/100、1/200、1/400和1/800)和氰戊·乐果(原药与水体积比为1/125、1/250、1/500、1/1 000和1/2 000),以喷施清水(放置6 h的自来水)作为对照,分别在处理后的第30天和第60天测定油桐幼苗土壤酶活性、有效养分含量和幼苗生长状况。【结果】百草枯和氰戊·乐果处理下,土壤pH与对照无显著差异(P>0.05)。高浓度百草枯(≥1/200)和氰戊·乐果(≥1/500)处理下,土壤脲酶、蛋白酶、过氧化氢酶和碱性磷酸酶活性在处理后30和60 d均低于对照,且在处理30 d后差异达显著水平(P<0.05); 商品规定施用浓度百草枯(1/400)和氰戊·乐果(1/1 000)处理30和60 d后,土壤脲酶和碱性磷酸酶活性高于对照(除氰戊·乐果处理的土壤碱性磷酸酶活性低于对照),而土壤蛋白酶和过氧化氢酶却低于对照,但它们的差异均未达显著水平(P>0.05)。在高浓度百草枯(≥1/200)和氰戊·乐果(≥1/500)处理30和60 d后均显著降低了土壤碱解氮含量(P<0.05); 在商品规定施用浓度百草枯(1/400)和氰戊·乐果(1/1 000)处理30和60 d后,土壤碱解氮含量略微上升,但差异不显著(P>0.05)。同样,高浓度百草枯(≥1/200)和氰戊·乐果(≥1/500)处理下土壤有效磷和速效钾含量在30和60 d均显著高于对照(P>0.05); 而商品规定施用浓度处理下(百草枯(1/400),氰戊·乐果(1/1 000))的土壤有效磷和速效钾含量则低于对照,但差异不显著(P>0.05)。相关性分析表明,有效磷和速效钾均与脲酶、蛋白酶和过氧化氢酶呈极显著负相关。高浓度百草枯(≥1/200)和氰戊·乐果(≥1/500)处理对油桐幼苗株高、地径和单株生物量的生长均有显著抑制作用(P<0.05),而商品规定施用浓度百草枯(1/400)和氰戊·乐果(1/1 000)处理下,油桐幼苗株高、地径和单株生物量的生长均无显著差异(P>0.05)。【结论】高浓度百草枯和氰戊·乐果显著降低了土壤脲酶、蛋白酶、过氧化氢酶和碱性磷酸酶活性,酶系统功能受到影响,导致了土壤有效养分含量降低(碱解氮)或不能被活化(有效磷和速效钾),进而对油桐的生长产生影响。然而,百草枯和氰戊·乐果在商品规定施用浓度下(合理施用浓度),油桐苗土壤酶活性、有效养分和幼苗生长受影响均较小,且可以达到病害防治和除草效果。因此,农业生产上应按商品规定的合理浓度施用农药,可以达到除草和杀虫的效果,而且不会对土壤环境和作物生长产生负面影响。
Abstract:
【Objective】The study aimed to provide a scientific guidance for the timing of planting oil tree and a theoretical reference to reducing non-point source pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.【Method】Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.)Airy Shaw seedlings were grown in pot soil under different concentrations of paraquat(volume ratio of the original medicine and water of 1/50,1/100,1/200,1/400,and 1/800 )and dimerthoate(volume ratio of the original medicine and water of 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1 000, and 1/2 000), with water as a control(CK), and the soil enzyme activities, efficiency nutrient content, and growth of seedlings were measured after 30 and 60 days, respectively.【Result】 The pH was not significantly difference among pesticides treatments and CK(P>0.05).The soil urease, protease, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase of soil had lower activity than that of CK,30 or 60 days after treatment with high concentrations(paraquat ≥1/200, fenvalerate-dimerthoate≥1/500), and the differences between them were significant in 30 days(P<0.05). However, the urease and alkaline phosphatase of soil had slightly higher activity than that of CK(alkaline phosphatasewas excluded), the protease and catalase of soil had slightly lower activity than CK had, all of them were studied 30 and 60 days after treatment with conventional concentrations(paraquat=1/400,fenvalerate-dimerthoate=1/1 000), but the differences between them were not significant in 30 or 60 days(P>0.05). The nitrogen content was significantly decreased 30 or 60 days after treatment with high concentrations(paraquat ≥ 1/200, fenvalerate-dimerthoate ≥ 1/500), but the nitrogen content was not significantly different between the CK and the pesticide treatment with conventional concentration(paraquat,1/400; fenvalerate-dimerthoate,1/1 000)(P>0.05).Similarly, the available P and available K contents were higher than that in CK,30 and 60 days after treatment with concentrations(paraquat ≥ 1/200,fenvalerate-dimerthoate ≥ 1/500), and they were not significantly different between the CK and pesticide treatments with conventional concentrations(paraquat,1/400; fenvalerate-dimerthoate,1/1 000)(P>0.05).The relative analysis of soil enzyme activities and available nutrients showed that available P and available K were significantly negativly correlated with urease, protease, and catalase. In addition, the growth of plant height, diameter, and biomass of seedlings were decreased under the high concentrations of paraquat(≥1/200)and fenvalerate-dimerthoate(≥1/500)treatment. However, the two pesticides with conventional concentrations(paraquat,1/400; fenvalerate-dimerthoate,1/1 000)had no significant effect on the growth of seedlings(P>0.05).【Conclusion】The results of the present study indicate that highly-concentrated paraquat and fenvalerate-dimerthoate obviously decrease the activity of urease, protease, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase, which reduce the soil nitrogen content and inhibit the activity of available P and K.Thus,the growth of seedlings can be affected because of plants cannot absorb nutrients from the soil. However, paraquat and fenvalerate-dimerthoate do not have any significant effects on soil enzyme activities and effective nutrient contents of Vernicia fordii seedlings under conventional concentrations. Moreover, applying pesticides with conventional concentrations can achieve the effect of weeding and plant disease control. Therefore, reasonable concentration of pesticides should be applied, according to which they can achieve the effect of killing weeding and insects, and will not have a negative effect on soil environment and crop growth.

参考文献/References:

[1] ANDREEA D, IOAN J, RADU R, et al. Researches regarding the reduction of pesticide soil pollution in vineyards[J]. Process Safety and Environmental Protection,2017,108:135-143. DOI: 10.1556/AAgr.58.2010.2.3.
[2] 张维理,徐爱国,冀宏杰,等.中国农业面源污染形式估计及控制对策Ⅲ:中国农业面源污染控制中存在问题分析[J].中国农业科学,2004,37(7):1026-1033. DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:0578-1752.2004.07.014. ZHANG W L, XU A G, JI H J, et al. Estimation of agricultural non-point source pollution in china and the alleviating strategies Ⅲ:a review of policies and practices for agricultural non-point source pollution control in China[J]. Scient Agricultura Sinica,2004,37(7):1026-1033.
[3] OGBOLOSINGHA A J, ESSIEN E B, OHIRI R C. Variation of lipase, catalase and dehydrogenase activities during bioremediation of crude oil polluted soil[J]. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 2015,14(5):128-141.
[4] 叶央芳, 闵航, 周湘池. 苯噻草胺对水田土壤呼吸强度和酶活性的影响[J].土壤学报, 2004, 41(1): 93-96.DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:0564-3929.2004.01.015. YE Y F, MIN H, ZHOU X C. Effects of mefenacet on microbial respiration and enzyme activities in paddy soil[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 2004,41(1): 93-96.
[5] KARIMA B, RYMA B, MOHAMED N, et al. Differences in antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative markers in ten wheat(Triticum durum Desf.)genotypes in response to drought, heat and paraquat stress[J]. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 2017,63(5):710-722.DOI: 10.1080/03650340.2016.1235267
[6] 刘娜,唐保宏,张美香,等.土壤中脲酶和磷酸酶对百草枯的响应[J].安徽农业科学, 2009, 37(22): 10615-0616. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0517-6611.2009.22.114 LIU N, TANG B H, ZHANG M X, et al.Response of urease and phosphatase in soil to paraquat[J]. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 2009, 37(22): 10615-10616.
[7] FERREIRA N G, MORGADO R M, SANTOS M G, et al. Biomarkers and energy reserves in the isopod porcellionides pruinosus: the effects of long-term exposure to dimethoate[J]. Science of the Total Environment,2015,502:91-102.DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.08.062
[8] 和文祥,郑粉莉,田海霞.氧化乐果对土壤酶活性的影响[J].中国农业科学,2009,42(12):4282-4287.DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.12.020. HE W X, ZHENG F L, TIAN H X.Effect of omethoate on soil enzyme activities[J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2009,42(12):4282-4287.
[9] 代会会,胡雪峰,曹明阳.豆科间作对番茄产量、土壤养分及酶活性的影响[J].土壤学报,2015,52(4):911-918.DOI: 10.11766/trxb201405080223. DAI H H, HU X F, CAO M Y.Effects of intercropping with leguminous crops on tomato yield soil nutrients and enzyme activity[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2015,52(4):911-918.
[10] 万盼,刘芸,黄小辉,等.农药和菌渣对三峡库区油桐生长及土壤化学性质的影响[J].重庆师范大学(自然科学版),2015, 32(2):44-49. DOI: 10.11721/cqnuj20150208. WAN P,LIU Y,HUANG X H,et al. Effects of pesticides and mushroom residue on growth and soil physical-chemical properties in tung oil tree of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area[J]. Journal of Chongqing Normal University(Natural Science),2015,32(2):44-49.
[11] 鲁如坤. 土壤农业化学分析方法[M]. 北京: 中国农业科技出版社, 2000.
[12] 姚晓华,闵航,袁海平.杀虫剂啶虫脒对旱地土壤酶活性及呼吸强度的影响[J].土壤学报,2005,42(6):1012-1016. DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:0564-3929.2005.06.020. YAO X H, MIN H, YUAN H P. Effects of acetamiprid on enzymatic activities and respiration of upland soil[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2005,42(6):1012-1016.
[13] MONTRIE C. Continuity in the midst of change: work and environment for west Virginia Mountaineers[J]. West Virginia History,2007,1(1):1-22.DOI: 10.1353/wvh.2008.0031.
[14] 徐宏强,汪贵斌,曹福亮,等.生物覆盖对银杏用材林土壤酶活性的影响[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2015,39(2):21-26.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.2015.02.004. XU H Q, WANG G B, CAO F L, et al. Effects of biological mulching on soil enzyme activity of ginkgo(Ginkgo biloba L.)timber plantation[J]. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2015,39(2):21-26.
[15] 蔡红,沈仁芳.改良茚三酮比色法测定土壤蛋白酶活性的研究[J].土壤学报,2005,42(2):306-313. DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:0564-3929.2005.02.020. CAI H, SHEN R F.Determination of soil protease activity with modified ninhydrin colorimetry[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2005,42(2):306-313.
[16] 鲁萍,郭继勋,朱丽.东北羊草草原主要植物群落土壤过氧化氢酶活性的研究[J].应用生态学报, 2002,13(6):675-679.DOI: 10.3321/j.issn.1001.9332.2002.06.008. LU P, GUO J X, ZHU L.Soil catalase activity of main plant communities in Leymus chinensis grassland in northeast China[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology,2002,13(6): 675-679.
[17] 魏强,凌雷,柴春山,等.甘肃兴隆山森林演替过程中的土壤理化性质[J].生态学报, 2012,32(5):4700-4713. DOI: 10.5846/stxb201111151734. WEI Q,LING L, CHAI C S,et al.Soil physical and chemical properties in forest succession process in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2012,32(5):4700-4713.
[18] 廖和平,沈琼,邱道持.土壤生态系统可持续性评价研究[J].西南师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2002,27(1):98-101.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5471.2002.01.022. LIAO H P, SHEN Q, QIU D C. An evaluation of soil ecosystem sustainability[J]. Journal of Southwest China Normal University(Natural Science), 2002,27(1):98-101.
[19] 邓晓,李勤奋,陈照,等.百草枯污染土壤的微生物生态效应[J].中国农学通报, 2006,22(8):511-514.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-6850.2006.08.125. DENG X, LI Q F, CHEN Z, et al. Ecologic effects of paraquat contamination on soil microflora[J]. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 2006,22(8):511-514.
[20] 李兰海,刘翔,朱咏莉.垦殖对伊犁河谷湿地土壤可溶性有机氮含量的影响[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2017,41(3):1-6.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201611026. LI L H, LIU X, ZHU Y L. Effects of reclamation on soil soluble organic nitrogen contents in wetlands of the Ili River Valley[J]. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2017,41(3): 1-6.
[21] WAGNER G,NADASY E. Influence of nitrogen and herbicide treatments on the nitrogen up take on pea and Chenopodium album[J]. Acta Agronomica Hungarica, 2010,58(2):123-132.DOI: 10.1556/AAgr.58.2010.2.3.
[22] 万盼,熊兴政,邬静淳,等. 2种农药胁迫对油桐幼苗叶绿素荧光特性及生长的影响[J].林业科学,2016,52(7):22-29.DOI: 10.11707/j.1001-7488.20160703. WAN P, XIONG X Z, WU J C, et al. Effects of pesticides stress on the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth of Vernicia fordii seedlings[J]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2016,52(7):22-29.

备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31370602) 第一作者:万盼(wp7413841@163.com)。*通信作者:刘芸(liuyun19970205@163.com),教授,博士。
更新日期/Last Update: 2018-03-30