[1]蒋 婵,李青青,刘莉莉,等.大熊猫10种潜在食竹营养成分的季节变化[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2018,42(05):148-154.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201801002]
 JIANG Chan,LI Qingqing,LIU Lili,et al.Seasonal variation in nutritional components of ten potential edible bamboos for giant panda[J].Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Science Edition),2018,42(05):148-154.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201801002]
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大熊猫10种潜在食竹营养成分的季节变化
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《南京林业大学学报(自然科学版)》[ISSN:1000-2006/CN:32-1161/S]

卷:
42
期数:
2018年05期
页码:
148-154
栏目:
研究论文
出版日期:
2018-09-15

文章信息/Info

Title:
Seasonal variation in nutritional components of ten potential edible bamboos for giant panda
文章编号:
1000-2006(2018)05-0148-07
作者:
蒋 婵李青青刘莉莉周杰珑陈粉粉杨亚晋张 璇郭爱伟*
西南林业大学生命科学学院, 云南 昆明 650224
Author(s):
JIANG Chan LI Qingqing LIU Lili ZHOU Jielong CHEN Fenfen YANG Yajing ZHANG Xuan GUO Aiwei*
College of Life Science, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China
关键词:
大熊猫 潜在食竹 竹叶 营养成分 季节变化
Keywords:
giant panda potential edible bamboo bamboo leave nutritional component seasonal variation
分类号:
S718.6
DOI:
10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201801002
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
【目的】大熊猫作为“国宝”级的珍稀濒危物种,迁地保护过程中受到食竹资源的限制。对大熊猫分布区以外的潜在食竹的营养组成进行研究,与主食竹中的营养成分进行比较,筛选出大熊猫潜在的可食竹,为大熊猫的迁地保护和保护区竹种的引种培育提供依据。【方法】以西南林业大学竹园中箭竹属的云南箭竹(Fargesia yunnanensis)、元江箭竹(F. yuanjiangensis)、扫把竹(F. fractiflexa)和棉花竹(F. fungosa),簕竹属的佛肚竹(Bambusa ventricosa)、青皮竹(B. textilis)、孝顺竹(B. multiplex)和绵竹(B. intermedia),慈竹属的慈竹(Neosinocalamus affinis),牡竹属的大叶慈竹(Dendrocalamus farinosus)等10种竹为研究对象,分析了竹叶中粗蛋白、粗脂肪、粗纤维、粗灰分、无氮浸出物、总能、总磷、钙、能量蛋白比等9个指标,探讨竹叶中主要营养成分的季节性变化。【结果】竹叶营养含量中粗蛋白最高的为大叶慈竹(19.54±2.76)%,最低的为元江箭竹(11.64±0.70)%,10种竹叶粗蛋白季节性变化明显; 粗脂肪以孝顺竹的最高(3.59±0.32)%,青皮竹的最低(1.91±0.76)%,粗脂肪季节性变化明显; 粗纤维以棉花竹的最高(43.29±4.10)%,慈竹的最低(37.58±2.45)%,粗纤维的季节性变化不明显; 竹叶总能的季节性变化不明显; 能量蛋白比以元江箭竹的最高((162.44±10.17)kJ/g),元江箭竹、棉花竹、孝顺竹、云南箭竹的能量蛋白比显著高于慈竹、大叶慈竹、佛肚竹和青皮竹的(P <0.05); 10种竹叶中钙质量分数为(0.85±0.05)%~(0.93±0.07)%,钙季节变化不明显; 总磷质量分数为(0.15±0.01)%~(0.27±0.03)%,粗灰分质量分数为(12.06±4.32)%~(16.16±3.80)%,总磷和粗灰分的季节性变化明显。【结论】通过与大熊猫主食竹营养成分比较,发现云南箭竹、元江箭竹、扫把竹、慈竹和孝顺竹等5种竹子从营养组成上符合大熊猫主食竹的需求,将在实际饲养中进一步验证大熊猫对其喜食性。
Abstract:
【Objective】The giant panda(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)is a rare specie and is known as the national treasure of China. The ex-situ conservation of the giant panda is often restricted by bamboo resources. Therefore, it is important to study the nutritional composition of the bamboos, which are distributed outside the area of the giant panda. This study can provide scientific basis for the ex-situ conservation and introduction of bamboo species in reserves.【Method】The crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, nitrogen free extract, total energy, calcium, total phosphorus, energy, and protein ratio of ten kinds of bamboo(Fargesia yunnanensis, F. yuanjiangensis, F. fractiflexa, F. fungosa, Bambusa ventricosa, B. textilis, B. multiplex, B. intermedia, Neosinocalamus affinis, Dendrocalamus farinosus)leaves were analyzed in this study. The seasonal variation of nutrients in bamboo leaves were discussed in this paper.【Result】The results showed that the highest annual mean crude protein content of bamboo leaves was found in Dendrocalamus farinosus(19.54±2.76)%, whereas the lowest was in Fargesia yuanjiangensis(11.64±0.70)%. The seasonal variation of crude protein in ten kinds of bamboo leaves was obvious throughout the year. The average ether extract of Bambusa multiplex was the highest, whereas that of B. textilis was the lowest. The crude fiber content of ten kinds of bamboo leaves was not obviously different throughout the year. The highest crude fiber content was found in F. fungosa, whereas the lowest was in Neosinocalamus affinis. The seasonal changes in gross energy were not obvious in the ten kinds of bamboo leaves. The energy protein ratios of F. yuanjiangensis, F. fungosa, B. multiplex, and F. yunnanensis were significantly higher than that of N. affinis, D. farinosus, B. textilis, and B. ventricosa(P<0.05). The highest energy protein ratio of bamboo leaves was found in F. yuanjiangensis((162.44±10.17)kJ/g). The calcium, total phosphorus, and crude ash of these bamboo leaves were(0.85±0.05)%-(0.93±0.07)%,(0.15±0.01)%-(0.27±0.03)%, and(12.06±4.32)%-(16.16±3.80)%, respectively, throughout the year. The seasonal variation of calcium in ten kinds of bamboo leaves was not obvious. However, the seasonal variation of total phosphorus and ash were obvious throughout the year.【Conclusion】Our studies indicated that the nutritional composition of N. affinis, F. fractiflexa, F. yunnanensis, B. multiplex, and F. yuanjiangensis conforms to the requirements of the giant panda's staple bamboo. Whether they can be the staple bamboo of the giant panda, still needs further verification in practical feeding trials. Our results provide a scientific basis and theoretical reference for the conservation of giant pandas and the feeding of giant pandas in zoos.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2018-01-02 修回日期:2018-04-17 基金项目:国家级大学生创新创业训练计划(201710677007); 云南省高校林木生物技术重点实验室资助项目 第一作者:蒋婵(2270066595@qq.com)。*通信作者:郭爱伟(g.aiwei.swfu@hotmail.com), 副教授。
更新日期/Last Update: 2018-09-15