[1]赵云芳,代佳灵,高素萍*,等.蓝花丹花芽分化外部形态与解剖结构的关系[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2018,42(06):203-208.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201712039]
 ZHAO Yunfang,DAI Jialing,GAO Suping*,et al.Flower bud differentiation process and its morphology and anatomical structure in two types of stigma of Plumbago auriculata[J].Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Science Edition),2018,42(06):203-208.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201712039]
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蓝花丹花芽分化外部形态与解剖结构的关系
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《南京林业大学学报(自然科学版)》[ISSN:1000-2006/CN:32-1161/S]

卷:
42
期数:
2018年06期
页码:
203-208
栏目:
研究简报
出版日期:
2018-12-15

文章信息/Info

Title:
Flower bud differentiation process and its morphology and anatomical structure in two types of stigma of Plumbago auriculata
作者:
赵云芳代佳灵高素萍*雷 霆蒋雨兰张芯周朱俞婷
(四川农业大学风景园林学院,四川 成都 611130)
Author(s):
ZHAO Yunfang DAI Jialing GAO Suping* LEI Ting JIANG Yulan ZHANG Xinzhou ZHU Yuting
(Sichuan Agricultural University, Landscape Architecture College, Chengdu 611130,China)
关键词:
蓝花丹 花芽分化 形态特征 解剖结构 分化进程
Keywords:
Plumbago auriculata flower bud differentiation morphological characteristics anatomical structure differentiation process
分类号:
Q944.57
DOI:
10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201712039
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
【目的】观察蓝花丹的花芽分化进程,了解其花期调控关键过程。【方法】试验以6年生盆栽蓝花丹为材料,采用田间观测和石蜡切片相结合的方法,观测花芽的外部特征,使用显微镜观察花芽的解剖结构,并划分分化阶段。【结果】蓝花丹的花芽只在当年生枝条的顶端着生,在花芽9个分化进程中,蓝花丹春季萌发枝条的花芽分化时间与各阶段对应进程关系为:①营养生长阶段,在3月中旬至4月5日进行,生长锥窄且细胞排列紧密,此时花芽的外部特征肉眼还观测不到; ② 花芽分化前期,在4月5—10日进行,生长锥开始变厚加宽,此时芽体基部开始膨大; ③ 小花原基分化期,在4月10—15日进行,生长锥形成多个小凸起即为小花原基的原始体,外部的芽体已经有明显的变化,基部膨大,剥开包裹芽体的封顶叶能看见1 mm黄白色的点; ④ 萼片原基分化期,在4月15—20日进行,生长锥凹陷成半月状的小突起,萼片原基形成,此时,幼叶开始展开,花芽明显伸长,芽顶端露出叶片的包裹,芽体呈黄绿色; ⑤ 花瓣原基分化期,在4月20—25日进行,萼片原基内侧开始出现突起,形成花瓣原基,此时花芽开始加宽生长,花芽变得肥胖,芽体呈现鲜绿色; ⑥ 雄蕊原基分化期,4月25—30日进行,花瓣原基内侧形成多个突起,此时花芽伸长生长,芽体明显变长,芽轴伸长,小花芽分离,整个芽体呈现浓绿色; ⑦ 雌蕊原基分化期,在4月30日—5月5日进行,在多个雄蕊中央形成一个突起,雌蕊原基形成,此时整个芽体伸长,萼片形成,芽体暗绿色; ⑧ 花粉形成期,在5月5—10日进行,随着性器官的发育成熟,雄蕊开始伸长形成雏形,众多的花粉粒在雄蕊上形成,此时小花芽形成,按穗状排列在花序轴上; ⑨子房膨大期,在5月10—15日进行,雌蕊开始发育成熟,子房膨大,柱头开始伸长,此时芽体明显增大,小芽外部的花萼筒成熟,形成一层红色的腺体。【结论】蓝花丹花芽分化需60 d左右,并且根据芽体大小、形状、叶片开展程度、芽与第一苞片的相对大小、芽体颜色等指标观察,建立了蓝花丹花芽(花序)分化过程中外部形态变化与解剖结构特点之间的关系。
Abstract:
【Objective】Plumbago auriculata has been performed well in China market. As an essential stage of flowering period, the process of flower differentiation is still unclear.【Method】Using six-year-old P. auriculata as materials, we combined phonological observation with the photos of paraffin sectioning technology to indicate P. auriculata bud diffe-rentiation, and a microscope was used to observe the anatomical structure of the flower bud. The differentiation stages were divided.【 Result 】The flower bud of P. auriculata grew only at the top of the branches in the current year. It is divided into nine stages. We established the connection between external morphology and internal anatomy during the development process. ① Vegetative growth stage(mid-March to April 5): the growth cone was narrow and the cells were closely aligned. The external characteristics of the flower bud were not detectable with the naked eye. ② Early stage of flower bud differentiation(April 5 to 10): the growth cone began to widen and the base of buds began to expand. ③ Floret primordium differentiation stage(April 10 to 15): the growth cone formed multiple small bumps in the original floret primordium, external buds showed obvious change, the base expanded, and the bud caps opened up to 1 mm in diameter. ④ Sepal primordium differentiation stage(April 15-20): the growth cone sagged into half-moon shaped small bumps, sepal primordium formation was observed and at this point, the young leaves began to expand, flower bud elongation was obvious, buds bore blades at the top of the package, and floral buds were yellowish green. ⑤ Petal primordium differentiation stage(April 20-25): sepal primordium inside began to show protrusions, petal primordium formation was observed, flower bud widened, flower bud increased in size, and the buds appeared bright green. ⑥ Stamen primordium differentiation stage(April 25-30): medial petal primordium formation of multiple processes, flower bud elongation growth, side length of buds was obvious, bud axial elongation, flower bud separation, and thick green buds. ⑦ Stamen primordium differentiation stage(April 30-May 5): in the middle of multiple stamens a protuberant was formed, pistil primordium formation, bud elongation, sepal formation, and dark green buds. ⑧ Pollen formation period( May 5-10): as the organs matured, stamens showed an elongated shape, numerous pollen grains were formed on the stamens, flower bud formation, and the spikes were arranged on the rachis. ⑨ Ovary enlargement period(May 10-15): pistil began to mature, ovary enlarged, stigma began to elongate, number of buds increased, the little bud external mature calyx tube, formation of a layer of red glands.【 Conclusion 】The flower bud differentiation of P. auriculata takes approximately 60 days, and according to the bud size, shape, new leaf, the first bract and bud color, the flower bud of P. auriculata, the relationship between external morphological changes and anatomical characteristics was established.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2017-12-26 修回日期:2018-09-10
基金项目:四川省科技厅应用基础研究项目(2017JY0183)
第一作者:赵云芳(1148305543@qq.com)。*通信作者:高素萍(gao_suping@sicau.edu.cn),教授,博士。
更新日期/Last Update: 2018-11-30