[1]李朝洪,赵晓红.黑龙江省森工国有林区生态建设与经济转型协调发展研究[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2019,43(02):144-152.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201804022]
 LI Chaohong,ZHAO Xiaohong.Study on the coordinated development of ecological construction and economic transformationin state-owned forest region of forest industry in Heilongjiang Province[J].Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Science Edition),2019,43(02):144-152.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201804022]
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黑龙江省森工国有林区生态建设与经济转型协调发展研究
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《南京林业大学学报(自然科学版)》[ISSN:1000-2006/CN:32-1161/S]

卷:
43
期数:
2019年02期
页码:
144-152
栏目:
研究论文
出版日期:
2019-03-30

文章信息/Info

Title:
Study on the coordinated development of ecological construction and economic transformation in state-owned forest region of forest industry in Heilongjiang Province
文章编号:
1000-2006(2019)02-0144-09
作者:
李朝洪赵晓红
(东北林业大学经济管理学院,黑龙江 哈尔滨 150040)
Author(s):
LI Chaohong ZHAO Xiaohong
(College of Economics and Management, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China)
关键词:
国有林区 生态建设 经济转型 耦合协调度模型 灰色模型 黑龙江
Keywords:
state-owned forest region ecological construction economic transformation coupling coordination degree model grey model(GM) Heilongjiang Province
分类号:
S7-9; F326.23
DOI:
10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201804022
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
【目的】全面停止天然林商业性采伐后,黑龙江省森工国有林区既要承担国家生态建设战略部署、维护生态安全重任,又要通过体制机制创新、产业转型升级、林业增效、职工增收来推进经济转型发展。分析黑龙江省森工国有林区生态建设和经济发展的协调程度,以及两者的自我发展水平和相互影响情况,为研究森工国有林区实施生态建设和经济转型协调发展提供一种相对客观的动态评价方法。【方法】遵循生态系统与经济系统发展演变过程及科学性、代表性、合理性和可行性等原则,构建了黑龙江省森工国有林区生态与经济协调发展评价指标体系。基于生态建设与经济发展之间存在互动机制,利用耦合协调度模型测算生态建设与经济转型之间的耦合协调发展水平,通过建立灰色动态评价模型分析生态子系统与经济子系统的自我发展能力和相互影响程度。【结果】①2000—2016年黑龙江省森工国有林区主要以生态建设为主导目标。除2000、2001年以外,黑龙江省森工国有林区生态子系统有序度均高于经济子系统有序度,表明生态建设占据主导。而2000年与2001年的经济子系统有序度大于生态子系统有序度,虽然表面上说明经济发展占据主导,但本质是生态建设效果的滞后性所致。②2000—2016年黑龙江省森工国有林区生态子系统的有序度整体处于波动上升趋势,表明生态建设效果趋显,森林资源得到逐步恢复和稳定增长,生态功能持续提升,维护国家生态安全的能力显著增强。而同期经济子系统有序度变化整体呈近似“U”形变化趋势,2003—2006年经济子系统有序度处于“U”形趋势底部,2006年之后有序度恢复上升态势,尤其是2011年以后经济子系统有序度显著上升,各年有序度水平都超过了0.5。③生态子系统与经济子系统耦合协调度经历了勉强协调→濒临失调→勉强协调→初级协调→中级协调→良好协调的不同发展类型阶段,总体上呈现波动式上升态势、逐渐趋于良好耦合协调发展的轨迹。2008年及以前耦合协调度属于过渡阶段,尤其2003—2007年期间,近乎处于“U”形趋势底部的经济子系统有序度与同期的生态子系统波动上升的有序度形成了较大的离差,导致这一时间段出现了过渡阶段中的濒临失调发展类型; 2009年及以后属于协调发展阶段。④2000—2016年黑龙江省森工国有林区生态子系统与经济子系统都具有自我发展能力,但都较弱。这是由于施业区内经济生产活动产生的工业废水、工业二氧化硫、工业固体废物等造成生态系统外部环境压力仍然巨大,以及森林资源生长的长周期性使得活立木总蓄积、森林覆盖率等指标的数据增长缓慢,致使黑龙江省森工国有林区生态子系统的自我发展能力依然较弱。2000—2016年黑龙江省森工国有林区发展中出现经济稳定增长、结构调整加速、转型发展路径日渐清晰、改革不断深入的良好势头,但也存在着制约和影响林区持续发展的短板问题:2014年全面停止天然林商业性采伐后,林业局收入减少,科技创新投入严重不足,林区专业技术人才断档,人才激励机制不完善,在岗职工年平均工资较低; 黑森绿色食品、森林旅游等产业发展还刚刚起步,生态产业、非木产业等转型替代产业发展潜力还没有释放出来; 产业布局不尽合理、主导产业不突出、同质化竞争严重、产业链条短、科技含量较低、拉动力不强等依然是产业发展的基本特征; 黑龙江省森工国有林区的资源优势、生态优势依然没有完全转化为经济优势,致使黑龙江省森工国有林区经济子系统的自我发展能力疲软。⑤生态子系统对经济子系统有促进作用,而后者对前者有抑制作用。相对而言,生态子系统自我发展能力在天然林资源保护工程资金的持续支持下强于经济子系统的自我转型发展能力; 黑龙江省森工国有林区生态建设效果显著走强的趋势对经济转型发展起到了良好的促进作用,但整体上经济转型起步迟缓、转型替代产业发展潜力尚未释放出来,从而对生态建设有一定的抑制作用。【结论】截至2016年,黑龙江省森工国有林区生态建设与经济转型处于良好协调发展阶段,黑龙江省森工国有林区在未来建设发展中,应统筹协调发展,通过推进国家重点生态功能区以及自然生态系统保护和建设、森林可持续经营、建设国家储备林基地来维护森林生态安全,为经济发展保驾护航; 通过建设生态产业、非木产业及开发境外资源来推进森工国有林区经济转型升级,缓解或解除经济发展对生态建设的抑制作用,以实现生态建设与经济转型的优质协调发展。
Abstract:
【Objective】After the complete cessation of commercial logging of natural forests, the state-owned forest region of the forest industry in Heilongjiang Province should not only undertake the strategic deployment of national ecological construction and maintain ecological security, but also innovate institutional mechanisms, upgrade industrial transformations, increase forestry efficiency, and increase staff income to promote economic transformation and development. The degree of coordination between ecological construction and economic development in the state-owned forest region of the forest industry in Heilongjiang Province, as well as their self-development level and mutual influence were analyzed to provide a relatively objective and dynamic evaluation method for the study of the coordinated development of ecological construction and economic transformation in the state-owned forest region of the forest industry.【Method】In accordance with the evolution process of ecosystems, economic systems, and the principles of scientificity, representativeness, rationality, and feasibility, the evaluation index system of the coordinated development of ecology and economy in the state-owned forest region of the forest industry in Heilongjiang Province was constructed. Because of the interaction mechanism between ecological construction and economic development, the coupling coordination degree model was used to measure the coupling coordination development level between ecological construction and economic transformation. The self-development ability and degree of mutual influence of ecological subsystem and economic subsystem were analyzed by establishing a grey dynamic evaluation model.【Result】①From 2000 to 2016, the state-owned forest region of the forest industry in Heilongjiang Province mainly used ecological construction as its main goal. Except for 2000 and 2001, the order of the degree of ecological subsystem of state-owned forest region of forest industry in Heilongjiang Province was higher than that of the economic subsystem, indicating that ecological construction dominated. In 2000 and 2001, the order of the degree of the economic subsystem was higher than that of the ecological subsystem order, although economic development was dominant on the surface, the essence was caused by the lag of ecological construction.②From 2000 to 2016, the order of the degree of the ecological subsystem of the state-owned forest region of the forest industry in Heilongjiang Province was on a fluctuating upward trend as a whole, indicating that the ecological construction effect was becoming increasingly obvious. Forest resources were gradually restored and steadily increased, ecological functions were continuously improved, and the ability to maintain national ecological security was significantly enhanced. In the same period, the order of the degree of the economic subsystem exhibited a similar U-shaped trend as a whole. From 2003 to 2006, the order of the degree of the economic subsystem was near the bottom of the U-shaped trend, and the order of the degree of the economic subsystem returned to an upward trend after 2006. Especially after 2011, the order of the degree of the economic subsystem increased significantly, with the order of the degree level exceeding 0.5 every year. ③The coupling coordination degree of the ecological subsystem and economic subsystem went through different development type stages, i.e., barely-coordinated→ on the verge of maladjustment→ barely-coordinated→ primary coordination→ intermediately-coordinated→ well-coordinated, which as a whole was exhibited as a fluctuating upward trend and gradually tended to a well-coupled and coordinated developmental track. The degree of coupling coordination from 2000 to 2008 belonged to the transition stage, especially during the period of 2003-2007. The order of the degree of the economic subsystem near the bottom of the “U” trend formed a large deviation from the order of the degree of the upward fluctuation of the ecological subsystem in the same period, which led to the emergence of the developmental type on the verge of maladjustment in the transition stage. The degree of the coupling coordination from 2009 to 2016 belonged to a coordinated developmental stage.④ From 2000 to 2016, both the ecological subsystem and the economic subsystem of the forest region of the forest industry in Heilongjiang Province had self-development capabilities, but they were both weak. Because of industrial waste water, industrial sulfur dioxide, and industrial solid waste generated by economic production activities in the state-owned forest region, the external environmental pressure of the ecosystem was still huge, as well as the long cycle of forest resource growth, the data of growth indicators, such as total accumulation of living trees and forest coverage rate was slow, resulting in the weak self-development ability of the ecological subsystem in Heilongjiang's forest industry state-owned forest region. In the development of the state-owned forest region of the forest industry in Heilongjiang Province from 2000 to 2016, there was good momentum in steady economic growth, accelerated structural adjustments, and an increasingly clear development path of transformation and deepening reform, but there were also short-board problems restricting and affecting the sustainable development of the forest region. In particular, after the complete cessation of commercial logging of natural forests in 2014, the forestry bureau's income decreased, the investment in scientific and technological innovations was seriously insufficient, professional and technical staff in the forest region were cut off, the talent incentive mechanism was not perfect, and the average annual wage of on-the-job workers was relatively low. The development of Heisen green food, forest tourism, and other groups had just begun, and the potential for the development of alternative industries, such as ecological industries and non-wood industries had not yet been realized. The basic characteristics of industrial development still had an unreasonable industrial layout, were not prominent in the leading industries, and had serious homogenization competition, a short industrial chain, low scientific and technological content, and weak pulling power. The resource advantages and ecological advantages of the state-owned forest region of the forest industry of Heilongjiang Province had not yet been fully transformed into economic advantages, which led to the weak self-development ability of the economic subsystem of the state-owned forest region of the forest industry of Heilongjiang Province.⑤The ecological subsystem had a promoting effect on the economic subsystem, whereas the latter had a restraining effect on the former. Relatively speaking, the self-development ability of the ecological subsystem was stronger than that of the economic subsystem under the continuous support of natural forest resource protection project funds. The significantly strengthening trend of the ecological construction effect in the state-owned forest region of the forest industry of Heilongjiang Province played a substantial role in promoting economic transformation and development, but overall economic transformation started slowly and the development potential of alternative industries was not yet realized; thus, having a certain inhibitory effect on ecological construction.【Conclusion】By the end of 2016, the ecological construction and economic transformation of the state-owned forest region of the forest industry in Heilongjiang Province were in a stage of well-coordinated development. In the future, the construction and development of the state-owned forest region of the forest industry in Heilongjiang Province should be coordinated as a whole to maintain forest ecological security and protect economic development by promoting the protection and construction of key national ecological functional zones and natural ecosystems, sustainable forest management, and the construction of national reserve forest bases. Through the construction of ecological industry, non-wood industry, and overseas resource development, the upgrading of economic transformation of the state-owned forest region of the forest industry could be promoted, the inhibition of economic development on ecological construction could be alleviated or lifted, so as to realize the best-coordinated development of ecological construction and economic transformation.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2018-04-18 修回日期:2018-12-17
基金项目:国家社会科学基金项目(13BY032)。
第一作者:李朝洪(578656151@qq.com),副教授,博士,ORCID(0000-0002-4791-6484)。
更新日期/Last Update: 2019-03-30