[1]张继强,陈文业*,谈嫣蓉,等.甘肃敦煌西湖湿地芦苇盐化草甸植物群落生态位特征研究.[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2019,43(02):191-196.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201803020]
 ZHANG Jiqiang,CHEN Wenye*,TAN Yanrong,et al.Niche characteristics of a salinized Phragmites communis meadow in a wetland of West Lake, Dunhuang, Gansu Province[J].Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Science Edition),2019,43(02):191-196.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201803020]
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甘肃敦煌西湖湿地芦苇盐化草甸植物群落生态位特征研究.
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《南京林业大学学报(自然科学版)》[ISSN:1000-2006/CN:32-1161/S]

卷:
43
期数:
2019年02期
页码:
191-196
栏目:
研究简报
出版日期:
2019-03-30

文章信息/Info

Title:
Niche characteristics of a salinized Phragmites communis meadow in a wetland of West Lake, Dunhuang, Gansu Province
文章编号:
1000-2006(2019)02-0191-06
作者:
张继强12陈文业12*谈嫣蓉12刘冬皓12袁海峰3王斌杰12刘鸿源1陈 旭3
(1.甘肃省林业科学研究院,甘肃 兰州 730020; 2.甘肃敦煌西湖湿地生态系统定位研究站,甘肃 敦煌 736200; 3.甘肃敦煌西湖国家级自然保护区管理局,甘肃 敦煌 736200)
Author(s):
ZHANG Jiqiang12CHEN Wenye12*TAN Yanrong12LIU Donghao12 YUAN Haifeng3 WANG Binjie12LIU Hongyuan1CHEN Xu3
(1.Gansu Research Academy of Forestry Science and Technology, Lanzhou 730020, China; 2. Gansu Dunhuang Xihu Wetland Ecosystem Research Station, Dunhuang 736200, China; 3. Administrative Bureau of Gansu Dunhuang Xihu National Nature Reserve, Dunhuang 736200, China)
关键词:
甘肃敦煌西湖湿地 芦苇盐化草甸 种群 重要值 生态位宽度 生态位重叠
Keywords:
West Lake Wetland Dunhuang Gansu Province salinized Phragmites communis meadow population importance value niche breadth niche overlap
分类号:
Q948.15; S718
DOI:
10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201803020
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
【目的】甘肃敦煌西湖湿地为中国西北极端干旱区拥有较大芦苇草甸面积的湿地,生态区位优势明显且特殊,在河西走廊乃至中国西部的生态安全占有极为重要的战略地位。通过研究芦苇盐化草甸退化过程中植物群落生态位的特征,探讨各优势种群对资源环境的利用状况和种间关系,可为盐化草甸植被的恢复和治理提供科学参考。【方法】于2017年9月上旬,在甘肃敦煌西湖国家湿地生态系统定位研究站的试验点(93°45'48″E,40°20'34″N)进行野外调查,以盐池湾盆底中心最低点(海拔997 m)为基点,分别自西向东、自南向北成直角分别布设1条样带。在每条样带中设置5个30 m×30 m的固定样地,每个固定样地相隔100 m,样地内沿2条对角线随机选取5个5 m×5 m的小样方,记录每个样方内的植物种类、高度、多度、盖度、密度等指标,共计调查50个小样方。基于野外调查结果,运用Levins生态位宽度指数和Pianka生态位重叠指数,对敦煌西湖芦苇盐化草甸植物群落生态位特征进行研究。【结果】①敦煌西湖盐化草甸群落的物种组成相对单一,主要由超旱生、盐生、沙生、湿生和水生等植物组成,在10个样地中共统计到9种植物,分属6科9属,出现频率最高的是芦苇,其次是疏叶骆驼刺,其种群在空间分布具有明显的荒漠和湿地相兼性和过渡性; ②9个优势种中,生态位宽度(Bi)从大到小依次为芦苇(0.350)>疏叶骆驼刺(0.263)>圆囊苔草(0.185)>赖草(0.184)=猪毛菜(0.184)>胀果甘草(0.145)>罗布麻(0.117)>黑枸杞(0.115)>海乳草(0.059),其中芦苇和疏叶骆驼刺的生态位宽度远高于其他种群; ③生态位重叠度(Okj)主要介于0.505 ~0.995之间,其中,Okj>0.7的有19对,占总对数的53%; Okj>0.8的有15对,占总对数的42%; Okj>0.9的有9对,占总对数的25%,种群之间的生态位重叠程度总体上较高,表明敦煌西湖芦苇盐化草甸群落绝大多数的植物种群间对资源利用具有较高的相似性。【结论】甘肃敦煌西湖特殊的地理环境条件孕育了极干旱区独一无二的芦苇盐化草甸群落,其群落特征是荒漠植被和湿地植被的综合体现,群落种群在空间分布上具有明显的荒漠和湿地相兼性和过渡性,构成了敦煌西湖特有的荒漠-湿地植被景观。敦煌西湖芦苇盐化草甸各种群之间生态位重叠程度总体上较高,生态位分化不明显, 最大的生态位重叠指数伴随着最大的生态位宽度,发生在优势种之间,表明该群落种群间资源的利用具有较高的相似性。特别是优势种芦苇和疏叶骆驼刺存在激烈的竞争,这种状态成为潜在的演替趋势,如果环境条件持续恶化,地下水位下降,将导致以芦苇为优势的盐化草甸将向疏叶骆驼刺占优的荒漠植被方向演替。
Abstract:
【Objective】 A wetland with a large reed area exists in West Lake, Dunhuang, Gansu Province in the extremely arid region of Northwest China; however, artificial and natural interference have caused environmental conditions to decline in this region. The aim of this study is to understand the niche characteristics of the plant community and its succession trends in the degraded saline reed meadow, as this will provide important information for the restoration and management of salinized Phragmites communis.【Method】A field investigation was conducted in West Lake, Dunhuang in early September 2017. The center of the field was in the lowest region of Yanchiwan(elevation 997 m). Two sample belts were placed at right angles to each other in west-east and south-north directions. Five fixed plots(30 m ×30 m)were positioned in each sample belt and plots were 100 m apart. Five small plots(5 m×5 m)were randomly selected along two diagonals in the sample plot. Plant species, height, abundance, coverage, and density were recorded in 50 small plots. Niche characteristics of the reed salt meadow were examined using Levins niche breadth index and Panika niche overlap index based on the results of the field investigation.【Result】Nine species of plants(belonging to six families and nine genera)occurred in 10 plots, including super-xerophytic, halophytic, sandy, wet and aquatic plants. Phragmites communis was the dominant species in the salinized meadow community, and its spatial distribution was characterized by the coexistence and transition between desert and wetland types. The niche breadth order was: Phragmites communis (0.350), Alhagi sparsifolia (0.263), Carex orbicularis(0.185), Glycyrrhiza inflate(0.184), Leymus secalinus (0.184), Salsola collina (0.145), Apocynum venetum (0.117), Lycium ruthenicum (0.115), and Glaux maritima (0.059). Niche overlap(Okj)ranged from 0.505 to 0.995. The Okj of 19 pairs of populations were greater than 0.7, 15 pairs were greater than 0.8, and 9 pairs were greater than 0.9, accounting for 53%, 42% and 25% of the total, respectively. Overall, there was a high level of niche overlap among species. Results show that there was high similarity in resource utilization among plant populations in the reed saline meadow in Dunhuang West Lake.【Conclusion】The reed saline meadow community in Dunhuang West Lake consisted of desert vegetation and wetland vegetation, and its spatial distribution was characterized by the coexistence and transition between desert and wetland types. The maximum niche overlap index of reed saline meadow was accompanied by the maximum niche width between dominant species. Otherwise, niche differentiation between groups was not obvious. In particular, strong competition was observed between Phragmites communis and Alhagi sparsifolia, indicating that if environmental conditions decline and groundwater levels decrease, the saline meadow that is currently dominated by Phragmites communis will be succeeded by desert vegetation(primarily Alhagi sparsifolia).

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2018-03-20 修回日期:2018-12-14
基金项目:甘肃省科技重大专项项目(1302FKDA035); 2017年陇原青年创新创业人才项目(甘肃省敦煌西湖湿地植物群落特征与水盐因子相互响应研究)。
第一作者:张继强(gszhjq@126.com),高级工程师,ORCID(0000-0001-7375-6798)。
*通信作者:陈文业(gschwy@163.com),研究员,ORCID(0000-0002-6137-5880)。
更新日期/Last Update: 2019-03-30