[1]毕 晨,张金光,吕梦竹,等.城市游憩型公共开放空间服务能力的测度——以南京市中心城区为例[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2019,43(04):117-124.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201805065]
 BI Chen,ZHANG Jinguang,Lü Mengzhu,et al.Measurement of service capacity of urban recreational public open space: taking the central urban area of Nanjing as an example[J].Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Science Edition),2019,43(04):117-124.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201805065]





Measurement of service capacity of urban recreational public open space: taking the central urban area of Nanjing as an example
毕 晨张金光吕梦竹赵 兵*
(南京林业大学风景园林学院,江苏 南京 210037)
BI Chen ZHANG Jinguang Lü Mengzhu ZHAO Bing*
(College of Landscape Architecture, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China)
公共开放空间 社会服务 游憩需求 人口 交通 南京
public open space(POS) social services recreational needs population transportation Nanjing City
【目的】基于行政区—街道—居住区尺度,剖析公共开放空间社会游憩服务本质并针对性地提出其服务优化策略。【方法】借助GIS、RS技术,以南京市中心城区游憩型公共开放空间为研究对象,分别从公共开放空间服务供给能力、居民游憩需求以及交通渠道3个方面,根据可达性相关指标定量化分析其服务能力。【结果】①供给侧:研究区公共开放空间数量略显不足且分布较为不均衡,结合人口分布表现为老城区服务效率较高、边缘区域则较差。②需求侧:结合人口分布,老城区80.15%的居住区属于游憩需求冷点地区,边缘地区需求热点则较多。③4种交通方式下公共开放空间可达性差异明显:机动车可达性最佳; 其次为非机动车和公共交通; 步行可达性最差,仅有35.13%的居民可以在20 min内步行到达临近的公共开放空间。【结论】从供需双向出发评价公共开放空间游憩绩效水平,并结合城市总体规划和居民游憩需求合理布局以及构建慢行系统3个方面提出了优化策略。研究结果能缓解当前以南京为代表的密集型城市中游憩空间供给不足与居民生活休闲需求激增之间的矛盾,并对接南京市新一轮总体规划的编制,为城乡规划实践提供参考。
【Objective】Based on three scales of administrative district, street and residential area,we evaluated the capacity of urban public open space social services and put forward strategies to optimize their service capacity.【Method】By using the network analysis of GIS and RS technology, the public open space(POS)in the central urban area of Nanjing was used as the research object. From the public open space service supply capacity, residents’ recreation demand and transportation channels, its social service capability was evaluated using the accessibility index. For example, C1 the rate of service population, C2 the ratio of service area, and C3 public open space per capita were examined.【Result】① Supply side:the number of public open spaces in the study area was relatively small,and their distributions were unbalanced. Combined with population distribution, we showed that the service efficiency of public open space is higher in central urban areas as compared with that of marginal areas.②Demand side:combined with residential socioeconomic status(SES)study, we found that 80.15% of main urban areas had low demand for recreation areas,while marginal areas had higher demands. ③ Transportation: we examined daily travel mode of residents, and found that there is a significant difference in accessibility among various modes of transport, accessibility of motor vehicle was the best, followed by the non-motor vehicles and public transportation, and walking accessibility was the worst; only 35.13% of the residents could arrive to the nearest public open space on foot within 20 minutes. 【Conclusion】This paper evaluates the level of public open space recreation performance from the two-way point of view of supply and demand, and puts forward optimization strategies from three aspects: overall urban planning, residents’ recreation needs, and construction of the slow traffic systems. The research results can alleviate the contradiction between the lack of supply of recreational space and the surge in the demand for better living of residents, especially the intensive cities represented by Nanjing. Mean while, it also can be used for the new round Nanjing urban planning and provide reference for relevant planning practices.


[1] 杨贵庆.大都市多元开放空间对宜居生活的保障:德国法兰克福“莱茵-美茵”国际设计工作营选题与启示[J].城市规划学刊,2014(2): 105-111. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-3363.2014.02.013. YANG G Q. Diverse metropolitan open spaces ensure urban Livability: analysis of international design work camp for frankfurt rhine-main metropolitan region in Germany[J]. Urban Planning Forum, 2014(2): 105-111.
[2] 韩凌云, 徐振, 王良桂. 多维视角下城市开放空间研究框架的建构[J]. 南京林业大学学报(自然科学版), 2014, 38(1): 83-89. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.2014.01.015. HAN L Y, XU Z, WANG L G. Open space morphology and research framework with multi-perspectives[J]. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2014, 38(1): 83-89.
[3] 李志明, 樊荣甜. 国外开放空间研究演进与前沿热点的可视化分析[J]. 国际城市规划, 2017, 32(6): 34-41, 53. DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.135. LI Z M, FAN R T. Visualization analysis of foreign open space research evolution and frontiers[J]. Urban Planning International, 2017, 32(6): 34-41, 53.
[4] 吴伟, 付喜娥. 城市开放空间经济价值评估方法研究:假设评估法[J]. 国际城市规划, 2010, 25(6): 79-82, 91. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-9493.2010.06.014. WU W, FU X E. Valuation method of urban open space economic value: contingent valuation method[J]. Urban Planning International, 2010, 25(6): 79-82, 91.
[5] 张帆, 邱冰. 基于日常生活视角的城市开放空间评价: 以南京市为例[J]. 城市问题, 2014(9): 16-21. DOI:10.13239/j.bjsshkxy.cswt.140903. ZHANG F, QIU B. Urban open space evaluation based on the perspective of daily life-take Nanjing as an example [J]. Urban Problems, 2014(9): 16-21.
[6] 周春山, 江海燕, 高军波. 城市公共服务社会空间分异的形成机制: 以广州市公园为例[J]. 城市规划, 2013, 37(10): 84-89. ZHOU C S, JIANG H Y, GAO J B. Formation mechanism of social spatial differentiation of the urban public services: a case study on the parks of Guangzhou[J]. City Planning Review, 2013, 37(10): 84-89.
[7] COOMBES E, JONES A P, HILLSDON M. The Relationship of physical activity and overweight to objectively measured green space accessibility and use[J].Social Science & Medicine, 2010,70(6):816-822. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.11.020.
[8] HANSEN W G. How accessibility shapes land use[J]. Journal of the American Planning Association,1959, 25(2): 73-76. DOI:10.1080/01944365908978307.
[9] JENNIFER W.Park and park funding in Los Angeles: an equity-mapping analysis[J].Urban Geography,2006,26(1):4-35.DOI:10.2747/0272-3638.26.1.4.
[10] OLGA B. Who benefits from access to green space. a case study from Sheffield, UK [J].Landscape and Urban Planning,2007,83(2/3):187-195.DOI:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.04.004.
[11] KYUSHIK O. Assessing the spatial distribution of urban parks using GIS[J].Landscape and Urban Planning,2007,82(1):25-32.DOI:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.01.014.
[12] ALEXANDER C,ISHIKAWA S,SILVERSTEIN M.A pattern language: towns,buildings,construction [M].Oxford: Oxford University Press,1977.
[12] ECKBO G.Urban landscape design [M].New York: Mcgraw Hill Book,1964.
[14] CLARK P.The european city and open space[M].London: Ashgate Publishing Co,2006.
[15] LUNCK K.City sense and city design[M].Cambridge: The MIT Press,1995.
[16] YUNG E H K, CONEJOS S, CHAN E H W. Public open spaces planning for the elderly: the case of dense urban renewal districts in Hong Kong[J]. Land Use Policy, 2016, 59:1-11.
[17] HESS G R, KING T J. Planning open spaces for wildlife: I. selecting focal species using a Delphi survey approach[J]. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2002, 58(1):2-40. DOI:10.1016/s0169-2046(01)00230-4.
[18] ASTELL-BURT T, FENG X, MAVOA S, et al. Do low-income neighbourhoods have the least green space? a cross-sectional study of Australia’s most populous cities[J]. BMC Public Health, 2014, 14(1):292. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-292.
[19] 吴必虎, 董莉娜, 唐子颖. 公共游憩空间分类与属性研究[J]. 中国园林, 2003, 19(5): 48-50. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6664.2003.05.014. WU B H, DONG L N, TANG Z Y. A study on categories and at-tributes of public urban recre-ational spaces[J]. Chinese Landscape Architecture, 2003, 19(5): 48-50.
[20] 南京市城市总体规划(2011-2020)[EB/OL].(2017-05-09)http://ghj.nanjing.gov.cn/ztzl/ghbz/ztgh/201705/t20170509_874089.html.
[21] 马琳,陆玉麒.基于路网结构的城市绿地景观可达性研究——以南京市主城区公园绿地为例[J].中国园林,2011,27(7):92-96. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6664.2011.07.022. MA L, LU Y Q. Research on landscape accessibility of city green space based on traffic network: case study of the garden green space of the city proper of Nanjing[J]. Chinese Landscape Architecture, 2011,27(7):92-96.
[22] 李小马,刘常富.基于网络分析的沈阳城市公园可达性和服务[J].生态学报,2009,29(3):1554-1562.DOI:10.3321/j.issn:1000-0933.2009.03.054. LI X M, LIU C F. Accessibility and service of Shenyang’s urban parks by network analysis[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2009, 29(3): 1554-1562.
[23] 邓羽, 蔡建明, 杨振山. 北京城区交通时间可达性测度及其空间特征分析[J]. 地理学报, 2012, 67(2):169-178. DOI:10.11821/xb201202003. DENG Y, CAI J M, YANG Z S.Measuring time accessibility with its spatial characteristics in urban areas of Beijing[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica,2012, 67(2):169-178.
[24] 卢宁, 李俊英, 闫红伟. 城市公园绿地可达性分析——以沈阳市铁西区为例[J]. 应用生态学报, 2014, 25(10):2951-2958. LU N,LI J Y,YAN H W. Analysis on accessibility of urban park green space: the case study of Shenyang Tiexi District[J].Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 2014, 25(10):2951-2958.
[25] NICHOLLS S. Measuring the accessibility and equity of public parks: a case study using GIS[J]. Managing Leisure, 2001, 6(4): 201-219. DOI:10.1080/13606710126543.
[26] DONY C C,DELMELLE E M, DELMELLE E C. Re-conceptualizing accessibility to parks in multi-modal cities: a variable-width floating catchment area(VFCA)method[J]. Landscape & Urban Planning, 2015,143:90-99. DOI:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.06.011.
[27] TLAEN E. Measuring the public realm: a preliminary assessment of the link between public space and sense of community[J]. Journal of architectural and planning research, 2000, 17(4):344-360.
[28] OH K, JEONG S. Assessing the spatial distribution of urban parks using GIS[J].Landscape and Urban Planning, 2007, 82(1): 25-32. DOI:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.01.014.
[29] COMBER A, BRUNSDON C, GREEN E. Using a GIS-based network analysis to determine urban greenspace accessibility for different ethnic and religious groups[J]. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2008,86(1):103 -114. DOI:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2008.01.002.
[30] LACHOWYCZ K,JONES A P. Towards a better understanding of the relationship between greenspace and health: development of a theoretical framework[J]. Landscape and Urban Planning,2013,118: 62-69. DOI:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.10.012.
[31] IBES D C. A multi-dimensional classification and equity analysis of an urban park system: a novel methodology and case study application[J]. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2015, 137: 122-137. DOI:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.12.014.
[32] 江海燕, 周春山, 肖荣波. 广州公园绿地的空间差异及社会公平研究[J]. 城市规划, 2010, 34(4): 43-48. JIANG H Y, ZHOU C S, XIAO R B. Spatial differentiation and social equity of public parks in Guangzhou[J]. City Planning Review, 2010, 34(4): 43-48.
[33] 张金光, 赵兵. 基于可达性的城市公园选址及布局优化研究[J]. 南京林业大学学报(自然科学版), 2018, 42(6): 151-158. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201710022. ZHANG J G, ZHAO B. Location and layout optimization of urban parks based on accessibility[J]. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Sciences Edition), 2018, 42(6): 151-158.
[34] 曹丹, 周立晨, 毛义伟, 等. 上海城市公共开放空间夏季小气候及舒适度[J]. 应用生态学报, 2008, 19(8): 1797-1802. CAO D, ZHOU L C, MAO Y W, et al. Microclimate and comfortable degree of Shanghai urban open spaces in summer[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 2008, 19(8): 1797-1802.


收稿日期:2018-05-25 修回日期:2018-10-29 基金项目:江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(PAPD); 国家林业局软课题(2016-R32)。 第一作者:毕晨(957063098@qq.com)。*通信作者:赵兵(zhbn10118@njfu.edu.cn),教授,ORCID(0000-0002-1281-6360)。
更新日期/Last Update: 2019-07-22