[1]罗长维,陈 友,张 涛.油用牡丹‘凤丹’主要传粉昆虫的传粉行为比较[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2019,43(04):148-154.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201811033]
 LUO Changwei,CHEN You,ZHANG Tao.Pollination efficiency of the major pollinators of Paeonia ostia‘Feng Dan’[J].Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Science Edition),2019,43(04):148-154.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201811033]





Pollination efficiency of the major pollinators of Paeonia ostia‘Feng Dan’
罗长维1陈 友1张 涛2
(1.重庆城市管理职业学院工程管理学院,重庆 401331; 2.重庆师范大学生命科学学院,重庆 401331)
LUO Changwei1 CHEN You1 ZHANG Tao2
(1. Department of Engineering Management, Chongqing City Management College, Chongqing 401331, China; 2. College of Life Science, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, China)
油用牡丹‘凤丹’ 意大利蜜蜂 中华蜜蜂 黄熊蜂 访花频率 访花范围 携粉量 花粉落置量
Paeonia ostii ‘Feng Dan’ Apis mellifera Apis cerana Bombus flavescens visiting frequency foraging scope pollen load pollen deposition on stigma
S794; Q944.43
【目的】显花植物大多具有多种传粉者,判断最有效传粉者的直接证据是对主要传粉者的传粉效率进行研究。‘凤丹’(Paeonia ostii‘Feng Dan’)为一种新型木本食用油料植物,繁育系统为部分自交亲和、异交,需要传粉者活动才能完成授粉过程。笔者对‘凤丹’居群的访花昆虫种类及其传粉行为进行研究,旨在查清‘凤丹’主要传粉昆虫种类及其传粉效率,为提高‘凤丹’结籽率、改善种子质量、加大栽培规模提供传粉生物学参考。【方法】采用定点调查法对‘凤丹’主要传粉昆虫及其访花频率、单花停留时间、访花时柱头接触率进行观测,采用跟踪调查法对主要传粉昆虫连续两次访花的飞行距离、访固定花朵数目时的被访植株数进行观测,通过田间采集与室内镜检对主要传粉昆虫体表携粉量与单次访花后柱头花粉落置量进行统计。【结果】‘凤丹’访花昆虫主要有蜂类、蚁类、甲虫类及蝇类共4个类群,主要传粉昆虫为意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera)、中华蜜蜂(A. cerana)与黄熊蜂(Bombus flavescens)。意大利蜜蜂与中华蜜蜂的访花行为相似。黄熊蜂的访花频率极显著高于意大利蜜蜂和中华蜜蜂的(P<0.01),单花停留时间极显著低于意大利蜜蜂和中华蜜蜂的(P<0.01); 黄熊蜂的柱头接触率与意大利蜜蜂及中华蜜蜂的差异不显著。黄熊蜂的访花飞行距离极显著高于意大利蜜蜂和中华蜜蜂的(P<0.01),访固定花朵数目时的被访植株数极显著高于意大利蜜蜂和中华蜜蜂的(P<0.01),更能促进植株的异交授粉。黄熊蜂的体表携粉量极显著高于意大利蜜蜂和中华蜜蜂的(P<0.01),单次访花后柱头花粉落置量极显著高于意大利蜜蜂和中华蜜蜂的(P<0.01),花粉转移能力更高。【结论】黄熊蜂、意大利蜜蜂和中华蜜蜂均为‘凤丹’有效传粉昆虫,以黄熊蜂传粉效率最高,中华蜜蜂与意大利蜜蜂其次,二者具有相近传粉效率。
【Objective】 Many Paeonia plants have poor fecundity. Paeonia ostii ‘Feng Dan’is a shrub that originated from Anhui Province and now planted widely in Hunan, Chongqing, Shandong, Sichuan and Henan in China. P. ostii seed contains abundant monounsaturated fatty acid, including α-linolenic acid(ALA), an essential fatty acid that humans cannot synthesize. Thus, the seed of P. ostii is an excellent raw material for the production of a new type of edible oil. Compared with the low fruit set of other Paeonia plants, the fruit set of P. ostii is high, which provides the possibility for large-scale production of its seed. The seed set of P. ostii from cross-pollination is significantly higher than that from self-pollination, which means that seed production is outcross pollinated and pollinator dependent. Thus, the foraging behavior of the main P. ostii pollinators is still unclear, which is important for gaining higher yield and seed quality. 【Method】 We investigated the pollination behavior of the major pollinators of P. ostii in Dianjing, Northeastern Chongqing, China in March and April from 2015 to 2017. Through fixed-point observations, we examined the visiting frequency, residence time, and rate of stigma contact of major pollinators. Through tracking observation, we measured the flying distance of main pollinators between two consecutive visits using a portable infrared rangefinder(Shendawei SW-A/B, Dongguan, China). Occasionally, honeybees flew away and returned to revisit the same flower, which was regarded as a single visit. Through field collections and laboratory observations under a microscope, we observed the pollen load of the main pollinators by netting the forager from the visited flower, and then transferring them to a poison flask and taking to the laboratory. All pollen grains on the poison flask and on the surface of the pollinator body were flushed with 50% alcohol and transferred onto a glass slide before being observed and counted under a microscope. The source of pollen grains was not identified; in our preliminary observation, all pollen grains carried by bees were found to be from P. ostii under a scanning electron microscope. To confirm pollen deposition by the main pollinators on the stigma after a single visit, the unopen flower was bagged until opening. The petals of the large flower were taped to form a half closure after fully opening, which allowed the pollinator to contact the stigma before collecting pollen grains. When the stigma was visited by a pollinator, it was transferred into a centrifuge tube and brought into the laboratory to observe and count under microscope.


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收稿日期:2018-11-21 修回日期:2019-04-02 基金项目:重庆市科委基础与前沿研究计划项目(cstc2015jcyjA80011); 重庆市教委基金项目(KJ1731421)。 第一作者:罗长维(luocw4540@126.com),副教授,博士,ORCID(0000-0002-4088-3309)。
更新日期/Last Update: 2019-07-22