[1]王章荣.我国林木良种繁育基地建设发展形势及可持续发展策略[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2020,44(05):001-8.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.202005016.]
 WANG Zhangrong.The current scenario and sustainable developmental strategies for genetically improved tree seed production bases in China[J].Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Science Edition),2020,44(05):001-8.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.202005016.]
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我国林木良种繁育基地建设发展形势及可持续发展策略
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《南京林业大学学报(自然科学版)》[ISSN:1000-2006/CN:32-1161/S]

卷:
44
期数:
2020年05期
页码:
001-8
栏目:
特邀专论(执行主编 施季森)
出版日期:
2020-09-23

文章信息/Info

Title:
The current scenario and sustainable developmental strategies for genetically improved tree seed production bases in China
文章编号:
1000-2006(2020)05-0001-08
作者:
王章荣
王章荣
Author(s):
WANG Zhangrong
(Key Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Biotechnology Ministry of Education, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037,China)
关键词:
林木良种繁育基地 种子园 育种策略 林业现代化
Keywords:
improved tree seed production bases seed orchard breeding strategy modernization of forestry
分类号:
S722
DOI:
10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.202005016.
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
1964年,福建省洋口国有林场杉木(Cunninghamia lanceolata)种子园、广东省台山红岭湿地松(Pinus eliottii)种子园、黑龙江省林口县青山林场兴安落叶松(Larix gmelinii)、日本落叶松(L. olgensis)、樟子松(P. sylvestris var. mongolica)种子园的建立,标志着规模化树木改良和林木良种繁育基地建设在我国的开始。经过半个多世纪的发展,我国已建立:国家林木种质资源库99个; 国家重点林木良种基地294个,生产林木种子1.7亿kg,苗木2 800多亿株; 审定认定林木良种3 224个, 造林树种良种使用率提高到65%。其中,浙江省杉木无性系种子园第1代、1.5代、第2代的6年生子代测定结果表明材积遗传增益分别为16.97%、22.58%、26.42%; 而种源种子园和双无性系种子园遗传增益更高,分别达到32.82%和37.93%。福建省第3代杉木无性系种子园材积遗传增益达76%。进入21世纪,我国对林木良种繁育基地建设的树种结构进行了调整。由于我国树种资源非常丰富(乔木树种就有2 000多种,其中不少树种具有特殊用途和特异性功能),我国良种繁育基地经营和树种改良方向更加多元化。除开展一般工业用材树种如松属(Pinus)、杉木属(Cunninghamia)、落叶松属(Larix)等树种选育外,同时开展遗传改良的树种还包括:特殊用材树种如降香黄檀(Dalbergia odorifera)、楠木(Phoebe bournei)、水曲柳(Fraxinus mandahurica)等; 抗逆性生态树种如梭梭(Haloxylon ammodensron)、沙棘(Hippophae rhamnoide)、胡杨(Populus euphratica)等; 园林景观树种如亚美马褂木(又称杂交马褂木或杂交鹅掌楸)(Liriodendron sino-americanum)、玉兰(Magnolia denudata)、金钱松(Pseudolarix amabilis)等; 油料香料树种如油茶(Camellia oleifera)、油桐( Vernicia fordii)、八角(Illicium verum )等; 干果树种如山核桃(Carya cathayensis)、香榧(Torreya grandis)、枣子(Ziziphus jujuba)等; 药用树种如杜仲(Eucommia ulmoides)、厚朴(Magnolia officinalis)、山茱萸(Cornus officinalis)等。笔者认为,我国林木良种繁育基地建设是实现我国林业现代化的一项基础性工程,是林木种子工程建设的重点内容,今后我国林木良种繁育基地建设可持续发展策略性措施包括下列6项内容:①稳定长期经济补贴投资机制,确保良种繁育基地长期正常运转; ②加强行政管理监督,制定和修订技术标准、法规; ③加强科学技术支撑力度,健全“三结合”协作机制; ④制定长期良种基地规划和育种计划,确保基地建设长期持续前行; ⑤成立良种基地管理指导委员会,建立科学决策机制; ⑥定期举办良种基地与林木育种研讨班,商讨关键科学技术和经营管理重大问题
Abstract:
The year 1964 was remarkable and historical time in terms of the construction of large-scale genetic improvement programs and improved tree seed production bases in China. Seed orchards of Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata)at the state-owned Yangkou Forest Farm, Fujian Province; slash pine(Pinus elliottii)in Hongling, Taishan, Guangdong Province; and Mongol scotch pine(Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica)at Qingshan Forest Farm, Linkou, Heilongjiang Province, were established. Over half a century later, there great progress was noted. A total of 99 national tree species germplasm banks and 294 national key improved seed productive bases(seed orchards and breeding arboretums)were established, and 170 million kilograms of improved seeds and over 280 billion nursery stocks were produced. Moreover, 3 224 improved tree varieties were tested and approved, and the supplement of genetically improved seeds covered 65% of the new afforestation area. The achievement of genetic improvement was also satisfactory. For instance, the genetic gains for volume growth of 6-year-old 1st, 1.5th and 2nd generation offspring of Chinese fir clone seed orchards in Zhejiang Province were 16.97%, 22.58% and 26.42%, respectively. The genetic gains were up to 32.82% and 37.93% from the original and bi-clone Chinese fir seed orchards, respectively, and the genetic gains for volume growth of the 3rd generation off spring of Chinese fir clone seed orchard in Fujian Province reached 76%. In the 21st century, the structure of tree species for constructing forest breeding bases was adjusted. Owing to the abundant resources of tree species in China(there are over 2 000 tree species, many of which serve special purposes and specific functions), the management and direction of improvement of breeding bases in China are highly diversified. In addition to the breeding of good varieties of common industrial wood species such as Pinus, Cunninghamia and Larix, the varieties of the following tress were genetically improved: Chinese fir, masson pine(Pinus massoniana), Chinese pine(Pinus tabulaeformis). special wood species such as fragrant rosewood(Dalbergia odorifera), Nanmu(Phoebe bournei), and Manchur ash(Fraxinus mandshurica); naturally resistant tree species such as saxoul(Haloxylon ammodensron), sandthorn(Hippophae rhamnoides), and diversiform-leaved poplar(Populus euphratica); landscape tree species such as tulip tree hybrids(Liriodendron sino-americanum), Yulan magnolia(Magnolia denudata), and golden larch(Pseudolarix amabilis); oil and spice species such as oil-tea tree(Camellia oleifera), oil tung(Vernicia fordii), and star anise(Illicium verum); dry fruit tree species such as hickory(Carya cathayensis), Chinese torreya(Torreya grandis), and Chinese dates(Ziziphus jujuba); and medicinal species such as Tu-Chung(Eucommia ulmoides), officinal magnolia(Magnolia officinalis), and dogwood(Cornus officinalis), among others. The construction of forest breeding bases is a basic project to realize the modernization of forestry in China, and it is the key step in the construction of forest seed programs. In the future, strategic measures for sustainable development of forest breeding bases in China will include the following six steps: ① stabilizing the long-term economic subsidy investment and ensuring long-term normal operation of the base; ② strengthening the operational political management and supervision as well as formulating and revising technical standards and regulations; ③ strengthening scientific and technological supports and improving the coordination of the “Three combinations”(taking the breeding base of improved varieties of production units as the platform, the administrative leading departments of forest seedling management as the leading, and the scientific and technological teams of key disciplines or key laboratories of teaching or scientific research institutions as the technical support team); ④ developing long-term tree breeding programs to ensure the continuation of tree genetic improvement; ⑤ setting up a management steering committee and establishing a scientific decision-making mechanism; and ⑥ regularly holding breeding seminars to discuss the key issues in development

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2020-05-12 修回日期:2020-06-16 基金项目:江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(PAPD)。 第一作者:王章荣(zrwang@njfu.edu.cn),教授,ORCID(0000-0001-6679-2811)。
更新日期/Last Update: 1900-01-01